Asexual reproduction is reproduction which doesn't involve meiosis, ploidy reduction, or fertilization. Only one parent is involved in asexual reproduction.Asexual reproduction is the primary form of reproduction for single-celled organisms such as the archaea, bacteria, and protists. Many plants and fungi reproduce asexually as well.
Fragmentation Fragmentation is a form of asexual reproduction where a new organism grows from a fragment of the parent. Each fragment develops into a fully grown individual. Fragmentation is seen in many organisms such as animals (some annelid worms and sea stars), fungi, and plants. Some plants have specialized structures for reproduction via fragmentation, such as gemmae in liverworts. Most lichens, which are a symbiotic union of a fungus and photosyntheticalgae or bacteria, reproduce through fragmentation to ensure that new individuals contain both symbionts. These fragments can take the form of soredia, dust-like particles consisting of fungal hyphae wrapped around photobiont cells.